Resources

Private Equity and Entrepreneurship Glossary

Fairness opinion

A letter issued by an investment bank that charges a fee to assess the fairness of a negotiated price for a merger or acquisition.

Fair value

A financial reporting principle for valuing assets and liabilities, for example, portfolio companies in venture capital fund portfolios. In 2007, more defined rules took effect. See ASC Topic 820.

FAS 157

See ASC Topic 820 entry.

Firm commitment

A commitment by a syndicate of investment banks to purchase all the shares available for sale in a public offering of a company. The shares will then be resold to investors by the syndicate.

First refusal

The right of a privately owned company to purchase any shares that employees would like to sell.

Flipping

The act of selling shares immediately after an initial public offering. Investment banks that underwrite new stock issues attempt to allocate shares to new investors that indicate they will retain the shares for several months. Often management and venture investors are prohibited from selling IPO shares until a “lock-up period” (usually 6 to 12 months) has expired. The term flipping" also refers to a private equity fund buying and quickly re-selling a company

Founder

A person who participates in the creation of a company. Typically, founders manage the company until it has enough capital to hire professional managers.

Founders stock

Nominally priced common stock issued to founders, officers, employees, directors, and consultants.

Free cash flow to equity (FCFE)

The cash flow available after operating expenses, interest payments on debt, taxes, net principal repayments, preferred stock dividends, reinvestment needs and changes in working capital. In a discounted cash flow model to determine the value of the equity of a firm using FCFE, the discount rate used is the cost of equity.

Free cash flow to the firm (FCFF)

The operating cash flow available after operating expenses, taxes, reinvestment needs and changes in working capital, but before any interest payments on debt are made. In a discounted cash flow model to determine the enterprise value of a firm using FCFF, the discount rate used is the weighted average cost of capital (WACC).

Friends and family financing

Capital provided by the friends and family of founders of an early stage company. Founders should be careful not to create an ownership structure that may hinder the participation of professional investors once the company begins to achieve success.

Full ratchet

An anti-dilution protection mechanism whereby the price per share of the preferred stock of investor A is adjusted downward due to the issuance of new preferred shares to new investor B at a price lower than the price investor A originally received. Investor A’s preferred stock is repriced to match the price of investor B’s preferred stock. Usually as a result of the implementation of a ratchet, company management and employees who own a fixed amount of common shares suffer significant dilution.

Fully diluted basis

A methodology for calculating any per share ratios whereby the denominator is the total number of shares issued by the company on the assumption that all warrants and options are exercised and preferred stock converted.

Fund-of-funds

A fund created to invest in private equity funds. Typically, individual investors and relatively small institutional investors participate in a fund-of-funds to minimize their portfolio management efforts.